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Roschan Monsef / Holger Schäfer / Jörg Schmidt IW-Trends No. 2 25. May 2021 The Trend Towards Second Jobs – Just a Question of Money?

In recent years, an increasing number of dependent employees have become multiple jobholders.

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The Trend Towards Second Jobs – Just a Question of Money?
Roschan Monsef / Holger Schäfer / Jörg Schmidt IW-Trends No. 2 25. May 2021

The Trend Towards Second Jobs – Just a Question of Money?

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German Economic Institute (IW) German Economic Institute (IW)

In recent years, an increasing number of dependent employees have become multiple jobholders.

This study investigates whether such secondary employment is primarily pursued to avoid social hardship. An empirical analysis shows that the motives of multiple jobholders differ significantly according to whether their ‘moonlighting’ involves dependent or self-employment. 41 per cent of employees who are self-employed in their side jobs have a university degree, a proportion significantly higher than the one among single jobholders and those working for more than one employer. Moreover, their main income tends to be above average. For employee multiple jobholders, on the other hand, financial factors are likely to play a key role. Not only is their gross hourly wage in their main job likely to be lower than that of single jobholders but their primary employment is also considerably more likely to be part-time. However, the total household income of employee multiple jobholders, including income from side jobs, does not differ significantly from that of single jobholders. Further analyses show that employees with lower main income are more likely to be holding down multiple jobs, even under otherwise equal conditions. However, this does not apply if income from secondary employment is also taken into account. Labour policy which made secondary employment less attractive, for example by raising the tax and insurance burdens for limited-hour contracts, could therefore increase the risk of poverty for those whose earning potential in their main job is limited.

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The Trend Towards Second Jobs – Just a Question of Money?
Roschan Monsef / Holger Schäfer / Jörg Schmidt IW-Trends No. 2 25. May 2021

The Trend Towards Second Jobs – Just a Question of Money?

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German Economic Institute (IW) German Economic Institute (IW)

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Results of the IW Works Council Election Survey
Christian Kestermann / Hagen Lesch / Oliver Stettes IW-Trends No. 4 29. December 2022

Works Council Elections 2022: Results of the IW Works Council Election Survey

Works councils receive strong backing from the workforces they represent. Nevertheless, the drop in turnout reported in the IW Works Council Election Survey 2022 suggests that this support is declining.

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Wido Geis-Thöne IW-Report No. 62 25. November 2022

Parental contributions for all-day care for primary school children

The organisation of all-day care for primary school children varies greatly from region to region in Germany. In most of the eastern German states it takes place mainly in after-school care centres, which are part of the child and youth welfare services, ...

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