Picking up on this finding and using theoretically-derived further training motives, the extent to which the job requirements, the working conditions and changes in the work environment influence the probability of an individual taking part in further training is empirically tested. The results reveal that the sharply increased participation in further training over time is due in particular to changing job requirements and changes in the working environment, with the combined effect proving strong enough to compensate for the growing share of menial jobs. However, overall participation in further training by semi- and unskilled workers still lags behind the level of those with a vocational training, advanced further training or tertiary qualification. The best approaches to upskilling the low-qualified are systematic individual support and establishing and developing a learner-friendly work environment that mitigates any aversion to learning and makes the benefits of further training immediately apparent.