In 2004 ten new member states joined the European Union and were integrated into the European single market. Trade in goods had already intensified considerably in advance of official accession since most customs and non-tarif trade barriers between the EU and the candidate countries had been dismantled in the 1990s. After the enlargement there was a significant increase in direct investment from the EU 15 countries into the ten new member states while the convergence of per capita gross domestic product accelerated perceptibly, helped no doubt by their growing integration into the EU’s cohesion policy. Exercise of the right to individual freedom of movement has been moderate.