In 2009, there were over 16 million people living in Germany who had a migrant background; this represents nearly one fifth of the total population. Of these, 8.8 million were nationals with a foreign background – whose working conditions are in the spotlight of this study. The federal government, the state governments, the social partners and representatives of migrant groups have set up, and are committed to, the National Integration Plan. It aims at improving the education, and particularly the language and occupational skills, of migrants in order to foster their better integration and participation in working life and German society.