On the one hand the effect on per-capita income and the fiscal balance will be slightly negative, while unemployment will also rise as a result of the refugees’ presence. On the other hand higher public expenditures together with an increasing number of employed refugees will boost economic growth. Between 2016 and 2020 the accumulated increase in the country’s real GDP could amount to as much as € 95 billion. The actual extent of this effect will largely depend on labour market integration and education policy.