Main causes for corruption are according to the studies (1) the size and structure of governments, (2) the democracy and the political system, (3) the quality of institutions, (4) economic freedom/ openness of economy, (5) salaries of civil service, (6) press freedom and judiciary, (7) cultural determinants, (8) percentage of women in the labor force and in parliament (9) colonial heritage and (10) the endowment of natural resources. Corruption has an impact on (1) investment in general, (2) foreign direct investment and capital inflows, (3) foreign trade and aid, (4) official growth, (5) inequality, (6) government expenditure and services, and (7) shadow economy and crime.